Waste management is one of the vital environmental issues since last few decades. It has been noted that the generation of waste increases with increasing population, industrialization and urbanization etc. The waste management strategy includes both non-hazardous and hazardous waste management. Non-hazardous waste does not cause potential threat to environment but instead hazardous waste is the waste that poses substantial or potential threats to public health and the environment. Rapidly growing industrial sector has contributed to the generation of large quantity of hazardous waste material. Therefore, to reduce environmental hazard, proper attention is required during storage, segregation, transportation and disposal of hazardous waste, because it cannot be disposed as off in the environment. This study explains about hazardous wastes, types and management.
Industries play a vital role in the economic aspect of modern society and hazardous waste production is an inevitable outcome of developmental activities and industrialization. A material becomes waste when it is discarded without expecting to be compensated for its inherent value . Hazardous wastes that are disposed off causes potential hazard to human health or the environment (soil, air, and water) when it is not properly managed. They are non-biodegradable, persistent in the environment and are deleterious to human health or natural resources. The management of hazardous waste is a process which includes the collection, recycling, treatment, transportation, disposal, and monitoring of wastes disposal sites. In the current scenario of developing countries, hazardous wastes are often disposed directly into the environment posing health and environmental risk. On the other hand, governments and international agencies are taking steps for controlling the growing problem of hazardous substances in the environment which appears to be a difficult process because the wastes are from many sources. Toxic and hazardous substances from these sources contaminate the land, air, and water . The potential health risk associated with these substances vary from minor, short term discomforts, such as headaches and nausea to serious health problems, such as cancers and birth defects, to major accidents that cause immediate injury or death . It is therefore important to take necessary steps in managing the waste. In view of this, management of hazardous wastes including their disposal in an environment friendly and economically viable way is very important and therefore suggestions are made considering the waste types and states [4, 5, 6]. Hence in this chapter we will discuss about hazardous waste, types and management.
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